Tambov, the centre of Tambovskaya oblast, is situated in the central part of the Tambov plain on the left bank of the river Tsna (the Volga basin) where the river Studenets flows into it. The distance to Moscow is 480 km southeast. It is a junction of railway lines (to Michurinsk, Rtishevo - Saratov, Balashov - Kamyshin) and highways. The climate is moderately continental. The average temperature of January is -11 degreed, of July +20 degrees centigrade. Precipitations make about 500 mm a year. Tambov has its own airport. The population is 310,6 thousand people.
In 1636 (the foundation year of Tambov) the voevode Roman Boborykin received the order to erect a fortress on the river Tsna opposite the mouth of the river Tambov. However, this place appeared to be inconvenient and the city was built 20 miles down the river Tsna. The name of the river of the Mordovian and ancient Finnish origin.
In 1647 the system of complex fortifications (the Tambov wall) was built. In the middle of the 18th century Tambov loses its military value and develops as a centre of agrarian district. Since 1719 Tambov is the centre of the Tambov province, since 1780 - Tambov is the centre of Tambov region ruled by governor-general. In 1796 it became the centre of the Tambov province. In the 18th century Tambov was the large cultural centre.
In 1870 the Ryazan-Ural railroad was laid through Tambov. The city became the large centre of grain trade; there appeared enterprises for processing of agricultural production, and also small metal working plants.
In 1960s the intensive industrial development of Tambov began.
Today Tambov is the industrial centre with the developed chemical machine-building ("Tambovpolymermash', "Tambovapparat", "Galvanotechnica", etc.); electrotechnical machine-building (plants "Revtrud" and "Elektropribor") producing accessories and spare parts to automobiles and tractors, press-forging equipment ("Tambovmash"), etc. There are enterprises of the chemical industry: "Pigment" Production Association (manufacture of aniline dyes), the asbestine, mechanical rubber goods and chemical plants. Besides there are enterprises of the light (sewing, shoe), food-processing industries and manufacture of building materials in Tambov.
Culture, science, education.
One can see the Scientific and Research Institute of Chemicals for Polymeric Materials, Scientific and Research Institute of Organic Semiproducts and Dyes, Scientific and Research Institute of general mechanical rubber engineering, Institute of chemical machine-building, of pedagogics and culture. The Drama, Puppet theatre and the Philharmonic society are also can be found here. There is a number of museums. For example, the Museum of local lore, the Picture gallery (Russian and West-European painting), the Museum - Manor of the Chicherins.
A lot of sights are there in Tambov. They are the Pokrovskaya Church (1763-69), the Kazan Church (1791), the former Archiereysky house (1791), the Summer Church (1818), the Spaso-Preobrazhensky Cathedral (laid in 1694), the main post office (1786), the former Theological Seminary (1785-1805), grammar schools (1825), the Public library (1842) and others.
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